List/Grid Sci & Health
May 11, 2015 Understanding how to overrule a signaling pathway that can cause treatments to fail in metastatic melanoma patients should help physicians extend the benefits of recently approved immunity-boosting drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors to more patients. In the May 11, 2015 issue of Nature , researchers from the University of Chicago show how these tumors shield themselves from T cells — the immune system’s front-line anti-cancer weapon — by producing high levels of beta-catenin, an intracellular messenger.
May 7, 2015 Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels dictate most differences protein levels in fast-growing cells when analyzed using statistical methods that account for noise in the data, according to a new study by researchers from the University of Chicago and Harvard University. The research, published May 7, 2015 in the journal PLoS Genetics , counters widely reported studies arguing that the correlation between mRNA transcript levels and protein levels is relatively low, and that processes acting after mRNA transcription override mRNA levels.
May 7, 2015 Newly evolved genes can rapidly assume control over fundamental functions during early embryonic development, report scientists from the University of Chicago. They identified a gene, found only in one specific group of midge flies, which determines the patterning of the head and tail in developing embryos.
May 6, 2015 Post-surgical leaks that develop after a segment of the colon has been removed and stitched back together often are caused not by negligence or technical error but by bacteria in the bowel that elude antibiotics, according to new evidence about this devastating complication of gastrointestinal surgery. Such leaks, which can develop days or weeks after the procedure, allow the bowel’s contents to spill into the abdomen and can cause pain, fever, sepsis and even death.
April 30, 2015 Patients are now being enrolled in a clinical trial conducted to study guanabenz, an FDA-approved drug to treat high blood pressure, as a potential therapeutic to reduce loss of myelin in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The trial, a collaboration between the Myelin Repair Foundation (MRF) and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center, is being led by NIH Investigators.
April 29, 2015 The University of Chicago Medicine was named one of the safest hospitals in the country for the seventh consecutive time by the prestigious and independent Leapfrog Group. In Leapfrog’s semi-annual Hospital Safety Score, UChicago Medicine garnered a “Straight A’s” designation for its consistency in delivering the highest level of quality and protecting its patients from preventable medical errors, injuries and infections while in the hospital.
April 28, 2015 Latino adults with diabetes who participated in a church-based education program reported eating less high-fat food and exercising more after the conclusion of a pilot intervention by researchers from the University of Chicago Department of Medicine. The Picture Good Health program, based in the South Lawndale/Little Village neighborhood of Chicago, was an eight-week series of classes led by trained community members.
April 27, 2015 Using a simple device for eight hours a night to treat sleep apnea can help people with prediabetes improve their blood sugar levels and may reduce the risk of progressing to diabetes, according to a new study published online in the April 21, 2015, issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . About 57 million Americans have prediabetes, a disorder marked by blood sugar levels that are elevated but not sufficiently high to be considered diabetic.
April 21, 2015 Researchers have unraveled the elusive process by which small, highly vascular clusters of sensory cells in the carotid arteries “taste the blood,” as a 1926 essay put it — the initial step in regulating blood-oxygen levels. In the April 21 issue of the journal Science Signaling , a University of Chicago-based research team describes the precise mechanism that cells in the carotid bodies use to detect oxygen levels in the blood as it flows toward the brain.
April 14, 2015 A natural compound derived from the bark of the magnolia tree, can protect the heart from hypertrophy, a thickening of cardiac muscle often caused by chronic high blood pressure that can lead to heart failure, researchers report in the April 14 issue of the online journal Nature Communications . When injected into mice, honokiol ((hoh-NOH’-kee-ohl) reduced the excess growth of individual cardiac muscle cells, decreased ventricular wall thickness and prevented the accumulation of interstitial fibrosis, a stiffening of cardiac muscle cells that reduces their ability to contract.